Category Archives: 2014


Graph theory has turned out to be especially helpful to countless differing fields. The energizing and quickly developing zone of diagram hypothesis is full of hypothetical outcomes and of addition applications to realistic problem  seen in the world. With the expanding significance of the PC, there has been a noteworthy development far from the previously used old methods and toward courses on discrete arithmetic, including graph theory.

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Scientific approaches which expresses itself mission to make and connect an incentive to in a tendency understudy accomplishment smothers any member of a  portion of the very components that motivate such accomplishment. The eventual fate of evaluation and the changing ideal models that will shape it, the tireless prevailing pretended with the learning educating stepped to the significance of learning Science.

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Dye Lasers Definition: lasers based on liquid or solid dyes as gain media A dye laser is a laser based on a dye (typically in a liquid solution) as the gain medium. Most laser dyes are based on organic molecules used in liquid form as solutions, although solid laser dyes and vapor dyes exist. A wide range of emission wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared region can be addressed with different laser dyes. Typical characteristics of laser dyes as gain media are: They exhibit a broad gain bandwidth, which allows for broad wavelength tunability and also ultra short pulse generation with passive mode locking. Upper-state lifetimes are typically a couple of nanoseconds, i.e., similar to those of semiconductor lasers, but orders of magnitude shorter than those of doped-insulator lasers. This means that dyes are not suitable for Q switching with continuous or long-pulse pumping. However, intense dye laser pulses can be obtained with pulsed pumping, using a Q-switched pump laser or a flash lamp. The gain per unit length can be fairly high (order of 103 cm−1), particularly for pulsed pumping. The power conversion efficiency is typically between 10% and 30% for laser pumping, and possibly lower for flash lamp pumping.

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The introduction of the GST affords the country an opportunity to embrace a modern consumption tax with appropriate focus on fostering efficiency, reduced cost of compliance and ease of administration together with the real prospects of enhanced tax revenue (Ficci). If the value added tax (VAT) is considered to be a major improvement over the pre-existing central excise duty at the national level and sales tax system at the state level, then the Goods and Services Tax (GST) will be a further significant break thought-the next logical step towards a comprehensive indirect tax reform in the country. GST is the comprehensive indirect tax levy on manufacture, sale, supply and consumption of goods and services. Its main objective is converge of all indirect taxes into a single tax , replacing multiple tax levies , overcoming limitations of current indirect tax structure and creating efficiencies in tax administration.  In India currently we are having Service Tax and VAT for collection of indirect tax on central level and VAT is charged for sale of goods on state level. But current tax system is not able to minimize tax evasion, distortion and cascading effects and also not able to increase the competitiveness of industry, export and company therefore we want move to GST. Goods and Services Tax would be one of the most significant fiscal reforms of independent India .GST is expected to result in major rationalization and simplification of the consumption tax structure at both centre and state levels. This paper presents the concept, recent developments and proposed benefits of GST to the India.


Keywords: Goods and Services Tax (GST), Value Added Tax (VAT), tax evasion, cascading effects and fiscal reforms.

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India is one of the most successful developing countries in terms of a vibrant market for derivatives. This reiterates the strengths of the modern development of India’s securities markets, which are based on nationwide market access, anonymous electronic trading, and a predominantly retail market. There is an increasing sense that the equity derivatives market is playing a major role in shaping price discovery. Equity derivatives trading started in India June 2000, after regulatory process which stretched over more than four years. In July 2001, the equity spot market moved to rolling settlement. Thus, in 2000 and 2001, the Indian equity market reached the logical conclusion of the reforms program which began in 1994. It is important to learn about the behaviour of equity market as well as investors towards equity market in new regime. India’s experience with launch of equity derivatives market has been extremely positive, by world standards. NSE is now one of the prominent exchanges amongst all emerging markets, in terms of equity derivatives turnover. There is an increasing sense that the derivatives market is playing a major role in shaping price discovery. The figure seems that the total turnover on the F&O segment increased by Rs.31,349,732 crore during 2011-12 as compared with Rs 2,365 crore during 2000-01. The average daily turnover during 2011-12 was Rs 125,903 crore from Rs 12 crore in 2000-01 which shows CAGR of 120.49% in terms of turnover and CAGR of 115.64% in terms of average daily turnover.

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Computer Networking is the art of connecting two or more computers in order to share peripherals (resources) e.g. printers, faxes, photocopiers, CD ROM, etc. and data, hence a computer network will be the interconnection of two or more computers. A Computer network can also be defined as any collection of independent computers that exchange information with each other over a shared communication medium. A computer network consists of a group of computers connected together by a specific type of transmission media (the cable that is used to transmit data across the network), network adapters, and network operating systems that support communication protocols. First we had the industrial revolution in the 19th and 20th century, which swept the whole world. The computer revolution is said to be the next big thing which is going to downsize the achievements of the earlier revolution.  Computer revolution has arrived in part and parcels in the 21st century and it is just going to grow bigger by the minute. Every minute at least a hundred PC’s are bought all around the world and majority of them are nowadays connected to the internet. When it’s all about connecting two or more computer systems, in different parts of the world, bang comes the need for networking. Networking allows various intelligent devices like computers, PDA, mobile phones to communicate with each other either through physical wires or wireless signals. This is nothing but the much used word “convergence” of technology.  We all send emails, don’t we? But have we ever wondered how this email knows where to go? Well devices like routers act like postmen, who look at the IP address the email address originated from and they then forward it to the destination IP address, who is the actually intended recipient of the email. Networking basically explains one how this sequence of occurs happens in real time world and as to how the data packets reach where they have to. Software and Networking are inter-dependant. A Client Server application created by the tireless programmer can run only on a network, formed by your hardware guy, whose majority of the time goes into tripping about CAT5 cables and sorting them out. The operating system


(network operating system) used by the system administrator is actually the successful execution of the code of a software programmer, at runtime. Currently the software field is very much saturated, as all that one requires in the software field is good logic, imagination and creativity. Hence even if you are not from a technical background as such, still you can pick up a course on say CC++ or Java and climb the steps of being a coder from day one itself. But networking is all about troubleshooting in real life situations. No matter how badly one messes up with a computer system, the networking guy has to get the machine up and running ASAP. In the forthcoming articles in this section, you will get to know more about the standard models over which the internet was built, a preview on the various devices that make a network work, like your hub, router, repeater, switch and also about the various networking operating systems. Useful tips regarding cracking certifications like CCNA, MCSE will also be given.


Key Words:- Computer Networking, Social Networking Sites(SNS), Multi National Companies(MNCs), Business Development(BD), SPSS, Factor Analysis, Chi-Square, ANOVA

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The damage caused by phishing ranges from denial of access to e-mail to substantial financial loss. It is estimated that between May 2004 and May 2005, approximately 1.2 million computer users in the United States suffered losses caused by phishing, totaling approximately US$929 million. United States businesses lose an estimated US$2 billion per year as their clients become victims. In 2007, phishing attacks escalated. 3.6 million adults lost US$3.2 billion in the 12 months ending in August 2007. Microsoft claims these estimates are grossly exaggerated and puts the annual phishing loss in the US at US$60 million. In the United Kingdom losses from web banking fraud-mostly from phishing-almost doubled to GB£23.2m in 2005, from GB£12.2m in 2004, while 1 in 20 computer users claimed to have lost out to phishing in 2005. The stance adopted by the UK banking body APACS is that “customers must also take sensible precautions; so that they are not vulnerable to the criminal.” Similarly, when the first spate of phishing attacks hit the Irish Republic’s banking sector in September 2006, the Bank of Ireland  initially refused to cover losses suffered by its customers (and it still insists that its policy is not to do so), although losses to the tune of €11,300 were made good.

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Cooperative banks leverage banking software with a prefixed monthly cost eliminating the need to purchase the banking software or make huge investments for setting up data centers. Cooperative banks are responsible for the infrastructure facilities within their branches, head office and other service outlets (PCs, printers, branch servers, UPS, LAN, switch, etc.) along with regular maintenance. For the data centers and disaster recovery centers, NABARD partners with technology providers including Net App by deploying Net App FAS storage systems as a private cloud. Harnessing the power of its patented Net App Data storage operating system, the FAS storage systems simplify data management across the CBS platform from the local office to the data center to the cloud. The systems integrate the latest flash, networking, and processor technology innovations while offering advanced storage and data management capabilities including de-duplication, Snapshot, Snap Mirror and Snap Manager.

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Food, shelter, livelihood and education, the most important aspects of a person‟s life, are provided in most rural areas through numerous „schemes‟ run by the central or State government. Food, for example, is distributed through the notoriously corrupt „Public Distribution System‟ – a network of „ration shops‟ which distribute subsidised grains and other essentials. Stock registers are poorly maintained and are not available for inspection by the public. Corrupt practices include the replacement of grains with poor quality stocks or even non-distribution on the pretext of „unavailability‟.  The fulfillment of the right to education can be assessed using the 4 as framework, which asserts that for education to be a meaningful  right it must be available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable. The 4 As framework was developed by the former UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, Katrina Tomasevski, but is not necessarily the standard used in every international human rights and hence not a generic guide to how the right to education is treated under national law.  The 4 As framework proposes that governments, as the prime duty-bearers, have to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education by making education available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable. The framework also places duties on other stakeholders in the education process: the child, which as the privileged subject of the right to education has the duty to comply with compulsory education requirements, the parents as the „first educators‟, and professional educators, namely teachers.

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Earthquake risk depends on where you are. The damage an earthquake can cause depends both on this and on the conditions existent where the earthquake occurred.

The high risk areas are in red. Earthquakes tend to focus around plate boundaries. Additionally, convergent margins tend to have deep-focus earthquakes, while transform or divergent boundaries have shallow-focus earthquakes. This is due to the cause of earthquakes at each of these margins. Along convergent margins, earthquakes occur along the bottom of the descending plate, while along other margins, earthquakes focus in the shallow part of the brittle rock zone. Earthquake effects are of six principal kinds:  two primary (ground motion, faulting), and four secondary, causing indirect damage (fire, mass wasting, liquefaction and tsunami).  Ground motion results from the movement of seismic waves, especially surface waves, while faulting can literally break the ground apart.

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